Saturday, March 21, 2015

Tunisia Note

More images and a video in Arabic at the link
Tunisian Jews in the synagogue in Djerba (AP)
Tunisia: where religious minorities quietly coexist
Mohammed Haggag

Learn Jewish Ibadi and Shiite minorities in Tunisia and on the nature of their relations by a majority of the Tunisian people if minorities in Tunisia: Some consider that the Shiites either repent or go to Iran, while others consider that belief as a private matter

Unlike a number of Arab countries, where is the question of minorities from the problematic issues of what might come out of the social and sectarian tensions, does not pose the question that sharpness in Tunisia. Tunisian minorities vary among themselves in terms of size and history also differ in terms of the role they play within the social fabric at all levels.

The oldest Jewish minorities in TunisiaTunisian Jews in the synagogue in Djerba (AP)

The estimated number of Tunisian Jews currently three thousand people. And the majority of them living in the island of Djerba, southeast of the country, while the rest is distributed to other cities such as Tunis, Sfax, Gabes and Zarzis. And hails Tunisia's Jews from the two groups, the first is the "Tunisian", which is said to have made to the country since the destruction of Solomon first structure, and the second is the Jews "Algrana" Latinos who disbanded in Tunisia since the sixteenth century, after being expelled from Europe, they settled in the country, refusing to mating with communities the other, including the Tunisian Jews.

And Djerba, which includes the largest number of children of the Jewish community where three schools Talmudic children learn Jews and Jewish history and Hebrew. Despite the migration of many members of the community in the twentieth century to Israel, a large number of them preferred to stay in order to preserve their property and who knew the big their contribution to the economic and commercial life of the country.

Most of Tunisia's Jews working in the fields of trade, especially formulated trade. The gold market is almost the island of Djerba to be monopolized by them as nearly fifty stores where Jews traders knew their ability to accomplish their work professionally and gained the trust of customers works. Tunisians general economic culture of the Jews has been influenced by them and they took a lot of the secrets of buying and selling, savings and control the market.Therefore, when you knew that Tunisians "Jerabh", Djerba residents, and "Elsafaksah", Sfax's population, they are more subtle, and the people of Tunisia superiority in the fields of trade, thanks to the experience gained from their relationships with Jews.

Tunisian Jews and their festivals and rituals that cling to them and keep them, there is hardly a month goes by without a celebration to evaluate what.Understanding celebrating New Year (year Droush) and holiday Yom Kippur (Kidur) and Holiday silence (Ashaich) and Hdhukan (lamp) and feast of Easter and other events that abstain from work is not selling, not buying and fast foods in most of these holidays. Also celebrating the holidays with some related varieties of food such as dates and holiday feast and chicken feast of unleavened bread.

It remains "pilgrimage" to the exotic temple in the spring, the holiday feast at Tunisia's Jews. Performing religious rituals during which days and Echttamonha big night pilgrimage which is about a concert during festive recognize Jews to each other and they declare Alkhtobat, wills and collecting donations for the needy children of the community. Most of the pilgrims to the synagogue are Jewish Arabs with Tunisian assets or Libyan or Algerian living in America and Europe. She talks about the genesis of the Jewish novel exotic woman synagogue link provided to Djerba, there lived a pious chastity and that she died in the place of the construction of the synagogue where he also sits one of the oldest copies of the Torah as the novel itself.

Ibadi sect and the search for identity 
The exact number of statistics absent in Tunisia, and live side by side with other minorities. Djerba, an island southeast of the country and is the most important strongholds of this sect dating back to Tunisia in the year 766 with the founding of the state Rustumiya by Abdul Rahman bin Rustam, which lasted 130 years before Azahaa Fatimids and Alobeidion 901 years.

But the demise of Rustumiya State did not end the existence Ibadites in Tunisia as continued adherence to the Berber tribes thought to this day. Talk about this minority has returned to pop up again. Was formed several associations to demand the reinstatement of a doctrine and her followers as an ethnic minority.However, the impact of that denomination differs from weighing in Algeria and Libya, for example, they are melted and fused in Tunisian society to a large extent as a result of state policies after independence, which dealt with the Tunisian citizen, regardless of race, color and creed. Not surprisingly, and Mr. Abdul Hamid Alerakec went to be considered Ibadi sect of minorities "silent" in Tunisia.

Dr. Farhat Aldjabera which is one of the flags Ibadi in Djerba and symbols, opines that the whole heritage Ebadi Babarha and their homes and mosques of Djerba. It has been possible for this community to maintain its integrity and existence, thanks to an internal system did not know when other denominations or minorities, which was known as "Aezzabh" system caused by the year 409 AH Sheikh Mohammed bin Abu Bakr Alqrstani a system he oversees the governance of the people and meeting their needs when they are State in the case of weakness. The Dr. Aldjabera mosques that represent the bulk of the inheritance toes on the island such as the Mosque of Abu gated and collector Salem Zayed Mosque and although a number of them became empty and turned into shrines to seek blessing Grown Ups righteous.

Libraries of the tributaries of the Ibadi heritage in the island of Djerba is also considered. Perhaps the most famous of these libraries library Albaronah, which turned into a contemporary electronic library deals with researchers from various flung, and the Jacobite Library along with other libraries vary in terms of size and in terms of accessibility of such Batoria library and library Gadoah.

Shiite tide in Tunisia

Although 85% of the country's population follow the Maliki school, which is one of the four Sunni schools, the limited proportion of Tunisians Shiites. The bias in the new Tunisia old phenomenon as rooted in the pre-Fatimid state and the spread of the Fatimid Shiism from the Tunisian town of Mahdia. Newly doctrine Jaafari in Tunisia has spread since the fifties of the twentieth century and Spaanyate and specifically after the famous Dr. Muhammad al-Tijani, a Tunisian Shiism codes, to Iraq, which planted the seeds of Shiism in Tunisia trip. Today, there are in Tunisia Shia Imami and deployed in several states of the country, such as Gafsa, Gabes, Sousse, Tunis and Mahdia.

Is among several that Tunisia from countries where Shi'ism is witnessing a significant expansion, especially during recent years, however, this issue is still not officially on the table and in the media, with the exception of some of the writings on the Internet. There are several explanations for this fact, the man who said that freedom of religion is guaranteed by the country's constitution. The state does not interfere in people's beliefs and persuasions, and among those is up to the tolerant nature of Tunisians and their ability to co-exist despite the different beliefs.

Despite the absence of official figures on the number of Shiites in Tunisia, the Tijani heavenly estimated the number at "hundreds of thousands" and say they are deployed in most of the country's provinces and practicing their rituals and rites without being exposed to them in bad one. Tunisia Shiites believe that the doctrine of al-Bayt is no stranger to the country and its roots date back to hundreds of years.

Shiism has passed the country's historical stages four: stage of barbarism and the stage of the Fatimid state, and the stage of the founding of Mahdia the year 921, and the stage of the sixties and early seventies which saw the entry doctrine Jaafari to Tunisia, was the most prominent symbols of Dr. heavenly, and the fourth stage was the eighties stage any immediately after the victory of the revolution Islamic Iran and calls Imad Eddin Hamrouni, the head of the household and Cultural Association, the stage of the "modern Shiism."

How to coexist with the majority of minorities?

The nature of the relationship between minorities and the majority reinforce the impression carried by most people for tolerance of Tunisians and accepting the other without being obscure, some behaviors that are often isolated and not live up to the level of incitement. confirms Benjamin's speech, the rabbi of the Great Synagogue in Tunis, that everything is okay and that members of the Jewish community enjoy a safe life in Tunisia was not recent events impact on their relationship with their neighbors and good Muslims and their religious rituals. The same is confirmed by Hai Camus, one of the Jews of Djerba, who said he did not feel any fear or concern for his safety or the safety of his family.

Dr. Farhat Aldjaabera a symbol of Ibadi codes in the island of Djerba ,emphasizes that the community is not an integral part of a complete system and from home part, and therefore, this community does not want to be isolated from its surroundings, but you want to be the center of the national system and dealing with others and coexist with them without conflict or oppose between the different currents. On the evidence of this coexistence that mosques Ibadi became open to all and that the people attending mosques Ibadi Maalikis without embarrassment or restlessness. It has been confirmed by recent events, while designated the Ministry of Religious Affairs in Tunisia a Ibadi sect followers imam of a mosque in the town of Mlaq kindergarten in the island of Djerba after he had seized by Salafists and thus resolved the dispute in favor of the Ibadi.

As for the attitude of the Tunisian Shiites is subject taking reportedly among those who accept them reluctantly and those who did not see the mind an coexistence with them. This Sheikh Bashir Bin Hassan, leader of the Salafi, is not Tunisia Sunni-Shi'ite no place for this community and say: "either to repent or to go to Iran," saying the Shiites of the most dangerous groups in the country's security. While human rights activist Abdul Raouf Ayadi believes that Shiites Tunisians free citizens and their right to profess the doctrine that it is want of freedom of religion in. The activist Ahmed Kahlawi goes on to say "if the Shiites Tunisia in the service of their people issues, there is no problem if they are in the service of other nationalities policies, this begs the question."The Mubarak Baadah Shiite icon in the Tunisian south region confirms that the community live in harmony with the year without recording what would disturb the relationship between the two communities.

Co-existence of minorities with the majority again reinforces the idea held by many Tunisians generally about tolerance and acceptance of difference and live with what surrounds the coexistence of unrest and tensions circumstantial do not affect the overall climate of tolerance that characterizes the social fabric of the country. This may be due to the fact that the majority are the overwhelming majority do not feel threatened minorities.

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